Sunday, December 2, 2007


I have tried to group these into topics as best I can:

General SAQ

Summarise the causes, effects and prevention of aspiration pneumonitis.

What are the indications for performing a tracheostomy? List the complications of tracheostomy

What solutions are available for the restoration of circulating volume in a patient suffering from acute blood loss? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

What are the causes and management of circulatory collapse at induction of anaesthesia?

Outline the key points in the management of a patient with massive haemorrhage.

Formulate a guideline for the perioperative administration of blood, explaining the reasons for your recommendations.

A General Practitioner has contacted you for advice about a patient who may be susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Write a letter to the General Practitioner explaining the significance of this condition for the patient and the relatives.

What diagnostic features would lead you to identify malignant hyperthermia during and immediately after anaesthesia of an adolescent presenting for appendicectomy?

What is the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia? How would you investigate it?

What factors determine the rate of haemoglobin desaturation during a failed intubation? What can be done to maintain oxygenation in this situation?

How can jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation be measured? What factors cause its value to increase or decrease?

How may coagulation be assessed in the perioperative period?

What is the normal glucocorticoid response to surgery? Outline, with reasons, your perioperative corticosteroid regimens in patients:
a) taking steroids at the time of surgery;
b) who have stopped taking steroids several months previously.

What tests may be done to evaluate the adequacy of pulmonary oxygen transfer? Briefly describe how you would interpret the results.

What nationally based audits in the UK include an examination of anaesthetic practice? Outline the methodology and recommendations of two recent reports.

List the risk factors for venous thromboembolism and classify the current methods of prevention, with examples

Explain the importance of a high airway pressure alarm system during general anaesthesia.

Outline the methods for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in routine surgical practice.

A patient who is HIV sero-positive is scheduled to undergo a laparotomy. Discuss the factors determining the risk of transmission to theatre staff. How can this risk be reduced?

What are the indications for a preoperative chest radiograph?

What do you understand by the term critical incident? Following a critical incident, what information should be recorded? What sequence of events should ensue??

Discuss the risks and benefits associated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation through a laryngeal mask airway.

What are the advantages and limitations of the laryngeal mask airway?

What is evidence-based medicine? How would you apply the process to your clinical practice

List the key clinical features, and commonest causative agents, of severe anaphylaxis occurring during general anaesthesia. Outline its management.

Under what circumstances is myoglobin found in the urine? What are the implications of myoglobinuria and how is it managed?

How may unintended perioperative hypothermia harm patients?
What are the potential causes of delayed resumption of spontaneous ventilation after major intra-abdominal surgery with general anaesthesia? Discuss prevention, diagnosis and management

What are the indications and contraindications for the use of an arterial tourniquet?
What complications may arise from the use of such a tourniquet

What are the anaesthetic problems caused by morbid obesity?

How would you prevent awareness under general anaesthesia?

Under what circumstances should general anaesthesia for elective cases be postponed and why?

What are the causes and management of hypoventilation immediately following anaesthesia?

List the causes and briefly give the management of tachycardia in an adult during general anaesthesia.

What factors do you consider important in selection of day case patients?

How does the presence of aortic stenosis affect the management of anaesthesia?

A houseman informs you that a patient's arterial pressure is raised before surgery; describe your management.

What is the significance of preoperative jaundice?



What particular problems may occur during lower abdominal surgery in a patient who suffered a traumatic transection of the spinal cord at C6 four weeks previously? Briefly indicate how you would avoid or prevent the problems you describe.

An 80 year old lady with a sub-capital fractured neck of femur requires surgical fixation. She is found to be in fast atrial fibrillation. What are the important points in the preoperative preparation for anaesthesia in this case?

A patient with a history of obstructive sleep apnoea presents for an elective cholecystectomy. How would you assess the fitness for anaesthesia? What precautions would you take with your anaesthetic management of this patient?

A surgeon is attempting an inguinal herniorrhaphy in a fit obese young man under local anaesthetic infiltration that is proving inadequate and asks for your help. What anaesthetic strategies are available for managing this situation?

A 78 year old male heavy smoker is admitted for laparotomy for his rectal cancer. He is treated with bendrofluazide and atenolol for hypertension (160/90 mmHg on admission). What specific actions would you take to improve the chances of a successful outcome.


You have been asked to anaesthetise a 60 year old woman for ligation and stripping of varicose veins in one leg. She has a history of ischaemic heart disease. Explain briefly how suitability for her management in a day-case facility is assessed.

An obese 70-year-old man underwent an emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair yesterday evening. He is known to be a heavy smoker and is a treated hypertensive. He has been cardiovascularly stable overnight and is responding appropriately. Propofol and morphine infusions are stopped with a view to extubation. Agitation, tachycardia (heart rate 130 bpm) and hypertension develop (250/90 mmHg).
List the factors that could be important in precipitating this response. (40%)
Briefly outline your further management in the ICU of these factors. (60%)

Outline your perioperative management of a patient with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Discuss the principles underlying the anaesthetic management of carotid endarterectomy. What are the risks of carotid endarterectomy? How may the anaesthetist reduce these risks


A 70 yr old man with chronic obstructive airways disease requires a transurethral resection of the prostate. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of intrathecal block for this patient.


A 20 year old patient, with sickle cell disease, was injured 12 hours ago. He has fractures of the metacarpal bones on his dominant hand. Elective surgical reduction and fixation is planned. Describe your anaesthetic management.

You anaesthetised a sixty-four year old man for removal of a protruding disc C4/5. The patient was found to be quadriplegic in recovery. Discuss the likelihood of this being a consequence of you anaesthetic.

A 70 year old man presents for a total hip replacement. He has no significant past medical history. At the anaesthetic assessment clinic he is noted to have a grade III ejection systolic murmur at the right sternal edge, radiating to his neck.
Describe, with reasons, what investigations should be undertaken on this patient and explain how the results would affect your anaesthetic management.

What are the types of anaesthetic that should be considered for fixation of a compound ankle fracture in a patient who was briefly knocked unconscious at the accident? Outline the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

What information would you wish to obtain from a patient at your postanaesthetic visit, the day after a total hip replacement?


A sixty-five year old diabetic female is to undergo a total abdominal hysterectomy. She is normally controlled by oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Describe your perioperative management of her blood sugar.


What problems are associated with anaesthesia for elective surgery in a patient with dialysis-dependent renal failure?

An otherwise fit patient requires nephrectomy for a large solitary renal tumour.
What surgical factors might influence your conduct of the anaesthetic?


List the likely causes of collapse in the dental chair of a patient undergoing a procedure under local anaesthetic without sedation, with notes on the presenting signs and symptoms. Briefly state what first-aid measures can be undertaken in each case.

What are the risks for patients associated with the administration of general anaesthesia in dental surgery? How may these risks be reduced?

Summarise the perioperative anaesthetic management of a patient who requires plating of his jaw fractured in a fight?

Discuss the principles of the management of a 25 year old patient with Down’s syndrome, who requires multiple dental extractions.


What are the pathophysiological insults which exacerbate the primary brain injury following head trauma? How can these effects be prevented or reduced

How would you manage the transfer of a patient to a regional neurosurgical unit for evacuation of an extradural haematoma

A 40-year old man is admitted with an acute head injury. List the indications for intubation, ventilation and referral to a neurosurgical unit.


What factors contribute to intravenous drug errors in anaesthetic practice? (40%)
What strategies are available to reduce the incidence of such errors? (60%)

What are the presenting clinical features of infective endocarditis? (40%)
What are the principles that guide the use of antibiotics as prophylaxis against this condition during surgery? (60%)

What is the physiological basis of preoxygenation for anaesthesia? (40%)
Describe a method of preoxygenation and how you would assess its adequacy. (35%)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of preoxygenating a fit adult? (25%)

What perioperative measures can be taken to minimize non-autologous red cell transfusion in a patient undergoing elective surgery

Which patients are at increased risk of infection related to an epidural catheter? (30%)
What symptoms and signs suggest the development of an epidural abscess? (30%)
What investigations would be definitive in initiating further management? (20%)
What should this be? (20%)

List the predisposing factors for aspiration of gastric contents during general anaesthesia. How can the risk of this complication be minimised? How should it be treated?

What are the anaesthetic considerations in a patient with autonomic neuropathy?

Discuss the perioperative management of the blood pressure of a patient undergoing removal of a phaeochromocytoma.

A 60 year old smoker requires non-laser surgery to the vocal cords. Outline the various anaesthetic techniques available, listing advantages and disadvantages of each.

What would make you suspect that a patient had sustained an air embolus during an anaesthetic? How should this situation be managed?

What procedures are associated with venous gas embolism? How can it be detected?
What are the effects of a large venous gas embolus? Describe its management.

List the dangers to the eye of general anaesthesia for elective intraocular operations. How are these prevented?

Outline the problems involved in anaesthetising an intravenous heroin abuser needing urgent surgery for incision of perianal abscess

What are the principles of pain relief after surgery in a drug abuser dependent on opioids?

What are the problems of monitoring anaesthetised patients in the magnetic resonance imaging unit?

What hazards does a patient encounter as a result of being placed in the lithotomy position for surgery? What additional hazards are introduced by then tilting the operating table head-down? Indicate briefly how you attempt to prevent these hazards

Outline the possible complications of anaesthesia with a patient in the prone position.

What are the factors contributing to unplanned awareness during general anaesthesia?


Outline the effects of old age upon morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia.

You are asked to anaesthetise an 87 year old lady for diathermy of her bladder tumour on a day case basis. What are the potential problems of this case and how would you manage them?

What factors contribute to postoperative cognitive deficits in elderly surgical patients? How may these risks be minimised?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of day case anaesthesia in patients aged more than 80 years?

What are the important organisational (40%) and clinical (60%) factors which govern the anaesthetic management of patients over 80 years of age

Difficult airway

An adult patient is known to be severely difficult to intubate. Describe a technique of fibreoptic intubation for this case

List the bedside tests available to predict a difficult intubation. Comment on their usefulness.

What is the role of the laryngeal mask airway in the management of difficult intubation?


Outline your management of an adult patient brought into the A & E department in status asthmaticus.

A 62 year old man is admitted to the high dependency unit following a laparotomy to relieve a large bowel obstruction. He has a urinary catheter in situ. Two hours later, he has only passed 25 ml of urine. List, with reasons, the likely causes. What is going to be your initial plan of management?

What measurements and derived values can be made from pulmonary artery catheters used in the intensive care unit? Suggest a clinical application for each one.

A patient on the intensive care unit has a mean arterial pressure of 130 mmHg. What drugs might be useful for reducing this to a safe level and what is the mechanism of action of each

List the factors associated with central venous catheter infections and suggest methods to limit such infections

How would you determine the mixed venous oxygen content in the intensive care patient? What is the usefulness of this measurement?

Describe the immediate resuscitation of a patient admitted to A&E following a fall from a 20 ft ladder.

A 27 year old man is admitted with a fracture of the cervical spine at C5/6. There are no other injuries. Describe the management of this patient in the first 48 hours after injury.

List the radiological investigations that are available to help exclude an unstable cervical spine injury in an unconscious, ventilated adult with multiple severe injuries. (25%)
What are the limitations of each technique? (75%)

Describe the criteria and tests for brain stem death. Briefly indicate the neurological basis for each test

Discuss the causes of muscle weakness in a critically ill patient. How would you investigate them

Discuss the ventilatory management of an adult with ARDS. What pathophysiological processes are involved in patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome?

A patient is mechanically ventilated for acute lung injury in the ICU. Explain what practical steps you would take to turn the patient from the supine to the prone position. (70%)
List three common acute complications of the prone position. (30%)

A comatose, ventilated patient who has a head injury has an intracranial pressure of 35 mmHg. His CT scan excludes a surgically reversible cause. What immediate steps would you take to assess and treat the patient

You are asked to see a 45 year old man in the Emergency Department who has suffered 30% burns. What factors in the history would suggest that he has suffered a significant inhalational injury? (25%)
What symptoms, signs and results of laboratory tests would confirm your suspicions? (75%)

Describe the diagnosis and immediate assessment of a patient with smoke inhalation injury.

What is disseminated intravascular coagulation. Discuss its management in the critically ill patient.

What are the limitations and risks of intra-arterial pressure monitoring in the critically ill? How may these be minimised

How is ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosed? (20%)
Explain the physical (50%), positional (15%) and pharmacological (15%) strategies that have been
advocated for its prevention?

Discuss methods of applying non-invasive ventilation. What are its uses and benefits?

What is ventilator-induced lung injury? Explain the relative importance of volutrauma and barotrauma. What is the practical importance of ventilator induced lung injury?

Define transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Discuss its pathogenesis, presentation, management and outcome

Describe your technique for insertion of a chest drain.

What forms of ventilatory support are used for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation?
What methods of sedation of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are available in the intensive care unit (ICU)?
What factors affect the ablility to wean patients from mechanical ventilation?
Describe the criteria and methods to wean such patients from mechanical support.

Discuss the management of a patient admitted to the ICU with: acute severe asthma; severe burns; septicaemia; Guillain Barre.

Discuss the differential diagnosis of stridor in a 3-year-old child.

What information can be measured or derived from a successfully placed multilumen PA catheter?

Describe the alternatives to donor blood transfusion.


The plasma concentrations of a drug have been measured in 20 normal patients and in 20 patients with renal failure. What simple statistical tests exist to determine whether these 2 sets of observations differ at the 5% level? What assumptions are inherent in each test which you describe?

What is meta-analysis? Outline the methodology. How are the results usually presented

Acute Pain

What are the advantages and disadvantages of intravenous patient controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different ways by which opioids may be administered for postoperative pain?

What methods are available for therapeutic nerve blockade? Explain the mechanism of action for each method

A 60 year old man presents for a hemicolectomy. How may choice of pain management influence recovery from surgery?

Describe the methods of pain relief for total abdominal hysterectomy.

What safety features should be incorporated into a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) system and what is the purpose of each? What instructions would you give to the nursing staff, having set up the PCA?

A 70 year old man is to undergo an above knee amputation. What can be done to relieve any pain he may experience thereafter

What safety features should be incorporated into an intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA) system and what is the purpose of each? What instructions would you give the nursing staff, having set up the PCA?

How would you provide optimal pain relief for a 60 year old man undergoing shoulder replacement

What aims and strategies are emphasised in a "Pain Management Programme

Outline the nerve pathways involved in the transmission and perception of a painful stimulus from the foot.

List the indications and contraindications for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)? What does the patient need to know when using a TENS machine ?

Describe two assessment tools used for the measurement of acute pain in adults. (30%)
Describe the McGill pain questionnaire used to assess chronic pain. (20%)
Include the strengths and weaknesses of each of the above. (30%)
Why do assessment tools used in acute and chronic pain differ? (20%)

Write short notes on paracetamol.

Chronic Pain

A 60-year old man is referred to you with reflex sympathetic dystrophy following an injury at the elbow 6 months earlier. Outline the treatment.

List, with examples, the causes of neurogenic pain. What symptoms are produced? What treatments are available?

What are the principles of cancer pain management

Describe the features and management of phantom limb pain

A patient presents to the pain clinic with low back pain. List the indicators (‘red flags’) that would alert you to the possibility of serious pathology? In their absence, what is the early management of simple mechanical low back pain?

Write short notes on TENS ... neurolytic agents ... cryoanalgesia.

What are the indications for a coeliac plexus block. Describe one approach and the complications of this technique.

Anatomy/Nerve Blockade

Make a simple drawing, with labels, to show the trachea, main and segmental bronchi.

Make a simple diagram, labelled to show the anatomical structures associated with the right internal jugular vein (including its important relationships). List the complications of cannulation of this vessel, mentioning how each may be avoided. Where should the tip of a left internal jugular line lie and why ? What anatomical abnormalities of this vein can make cannulation hazardous or impossible? Outline the risks associated with cannulation of this vessel and how they can be minimised for hip surgery.

Draw a labelled diagram of the anatomy of the anterior aspect of the wrist. How may this knowledge be used in anaesthetic practice?

Outline your technique for percutaneous tracheostomy, with particular reference to the anatomy involved. List the possible complications of this procedure

Draw a diagram of the lumbar plexus.

Outline the anatomical basis of a ‘3 in 1’ block. Explain why the block may fail to provide reliable analgesia

Describe the anatomy of the inguinal canal and describe a technique for local anaesthesia for herniorrhaphy (excluding extradural/spinal blockade).

Describe the arterial blood supply to the spinal cord. How may it be compromised?

Describe two adjoining mid-lumbar vertebrae. Include the joints, their nerve supply and the ligaments

Describe how you would carry out an axillary brachial plexus block

Draw a labelled diagram of the anatomical relations of the stellate ganglion. How is it blocked and what are the possible complications?

Describe the anatomy of the coeliac plexus. What are the indications for its therapeutic blockade?

Describe the anatomy of the nerves involved for neural conduction blockade at the ankle. Femoral nerve root value. Relation ship of those nerve to the ankle Ankle block performance. Maximum dose. Calculation. Complication

What are the indications for a popliteal fossa block? (10%)
List the nerves that are affected and describe their cutaneous innervation. (35%)
What responses would you get on stimulating these nerves? (25%)
Briefly describe one technique for performing this block. (30%)

List the nerves which supply the eye and its muscles. Briefly describe the relevant function of each nerve. (40%). What specific considerations would you take into account when providing general anaesthesia for adult vitreo-retinal surgery? (60%)

Intercostal nerve. Draw a typical intercostal nerve with its branches What do the branches supply? Do any branches cross over the midline to supply the other side? Draw a cross section of a rib with the intercostals muscles and neurovascular bundle. How are the muscles arranged? What are the indications to block the intercostals nerve? Where would you do it? And how? What are the complications?

How do you prevent LA toxicity? What is it specifically you are worried about? Are there any drugs that can be used to minimize this risk?

Why do you get a pneumothorax? How can you prevent it?

Describe the place of local analgesic nerve blocks during anaesthesia for cholecystectomy.

Describe the anatomy of the caudal space. What are the indications for analgesia administered by this route?

Describe the anatomy of the diaphragm. Which factors in anaesthetic practice affect its function?

Describe the anatomy of the first rib. Outline the technique for subclavian vein catheterisation.

Describe the anatomy of the 9th intercostal nerve. What complications may arise following intercostal nerve block?

Describe the prevention and treatment of the main complications of extradural analgesia using local analgesia.



Outline your management of a fit primagravida who suffers inadvertent dural puncture with a 16 gauge Tuohy needle during attempted epidural for pain relief in the first stage of labour (cervix 4 cm dilated). Outline the possible reasons for the reduction, over the last decade, of maternal mortality associated with anaesthesia

List the pathophysiological and clinical features of HELLP syndrome. What are the diagnostic laboratory findings and the priorities in management?

Write short notes, with reasons, on your anaesthetic management of emergency Caesarean section for cord prolapse in a fit 21 year old primagravida

What are the advantages of retaining motor power in a woman having an epidural for a normal labour? How can this be achieved and what would you check before allowing the woman to get out of bed?

What is the differential diagnosis of persistent headache in the puerperium of a woman who has undergone a regional anaesthetic technique? Describe the distinguishing clinical features of each cause

What is an appropriate intervertebral space at which to insert a spinal needle to administer a subarachnoid anaesthetic for a Caesarean section? Give your reasons and describe how you would locate the space

When obtaining consent for an epidural for a primigravida in labour, what complications do you mention? Quote their incidence if known. What can be done to reduce the likelihood of these problems

List the three commonest causes of direct maternal deaths in the United Kingdom. What anatomical and physiological changes of pregnancy affect your ability to resuscitate a woman who has suffered cardiovascular collapse at full term?

What potential problems and risks do you consider when planning the anaesthetic management of the delivery of twins

What advice, for and against, would you give a primagravida who is asking if she might eat and drink during her labour? Give reasons.

Define primary postpartum haemorrhage (10%)
List the pharmacological agents that may be used postpartum to reduce uterine atony and any precautions with their use. (50%)
Outline the management of a significant primary postpartum haemorrhage. (40%)

Outline the possible reasons for the reduction, over the last decade, of maternal mortality associated with anaesthesia

List the indications and contraindications for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)? What does the patient need to know when using a TENS machine

Which patients are at increased risk of infection related to an epidural catheter? (30%)
What symptoms and signs suggest the development of an epidural abscess? (30%)
What investigations would be definitive in initiating further management? (20%)
What should this be? (20%)


What is your choice of anaesthesia for pericardectomy in constrictive pericarditis? Give reasons for your choice.

The first patient on your operating theatre list tomorrow morning has an implanted (permanent) cardiac pacemaker. List, with reasons, the relevant factors in your preoperative assessment.
What are the postoperative problems in the first 24 hours after coronary artery bypass graft? How are they prevented

List, with reasons, the factors which affect the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction

What are the principles of adult cardio-pulmonary bypass? What are the common complications of this procedure?

How do you confirm that a double-lumen endobronchial tube has been placed correctly? Outline the possible complications associated with the use of this equipment.

Classify the types of heart block. Outline appropriate treatment in the intraoperative period

A patient who has undergone a heart transplant requires non-cardiac surgery. What problems may this present for the anaesthetist?

What are the possible deleterious consequences of cardiopulmonary bypass when used in coronary artery surgery? How may these be reduced?

A patient with aortic stenosis presents for non-cardiac surgery. What are the clinical features of aortic stenosis and how would preoperative investigations influence your perioperative management?

What are the risks and benefits of thoracic epidural anaesthesia/analgesia for coronary artery surgery?

Outline the pathology of acute coronary syndromes. What pharmacological treatments are available for patients with an acute coronary syndrome

Describe the preoperative assessment and preparation specific to an adult patient who requires a thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomy. Describe your anaesthetic plan for this operation

List the causes of perioperative atrial fibrillation. What are the dangers of acute onset atrial fibrillation? How would you manage acute atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period?

A patient on the ICU, who had cardiac surgery completed 3 hours ago, is still intubated.
What clinical features might suggest the development of acute cardiac tamponade? (55%)
How might you confirm the diagnosis? (5%)
Outline your management of acute cardiac tamponade? (40%)


What are the choices for postoperative analgesia for a child aged 4 years presenting for repair of an inguinal hernia as a day case? State briefly the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Describe your procedure for cardiac life support in a child aged five years.

Outline the anaesthetic management of a 2 year old child who is scheduled for therapeutic bronchoscopy following inhalation of a foreign body 2 days ago. The child does not exhibit any signs of upper airway obstruction

What is the anaesthetic management of pyloric stenosis in a 6 week old child?

Describe your procedure for cardiac life support of a child aged 5 years

A ten week old male infant weighing 3.5 kg is scheduled for inguinal hernia repair. He was delivered prematurely at thirty-four weeks. List the risk factors and state how these can be minimised.

Outline the early management of a one year old child with 25% burns caused by scalding

A ten week old male infant weighing 3.5 kg is scheduled for inguinal hernia repair. He was delivered prematurely at thirty-four weeks. List the risk factors and state how these can be minimised

A 4 year old child who has been knocked unconscious by a blow from a cricket bat arrives at a paediatric neurosurgical centre. After initial appropriate management, a CT scan shows an extradural haematoma. There are no other injuries. Discuss the subsequent management.

You are called to the A and E department to review a 4 year old child who requires intubation. She has a clinical diagnosis of meningococcal sepsis. She has reduced consciousness and a petechial rash. Describe your immediate management.

Outline, with reasons, your perioperative management of an otherwise healthy 4 year old admitted for tonsillectomy

You are asked to anaesthetise a 5-year-old child (weight 20 kg) for an emergency appendicectomy. Describe in detail the induction of anaesthesia with special reference to:-
Fluid management (20%)
The airway (50%)
Drug management, including doses (30%)

A one day old term neonate has arrived at your regional paediatric intensive care unit. A congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been diagnosed. The baby is already intubated and receiving artificial ventilation. Outline, with reasons the principles of preoperative management.

Describe the anaesthetic management of a penetrating eye injury in a screaming 5 year old child.


List, with a brief statement on the effectiveness of each one, the means available for detecting awareness during anaesthesia.

How does a rotameter flowmeter work? Describe its advantages and limitations

Describe in detail how you would accurately measure a patient’s peak expiratory flow rate. What factors may give rise to erroneous readings

What are the physical principles of the capnograph? Discuss the applications of capnography in anaesthetic practice Define capnography. Draw and label a normal capnograph trace. Why is capnography useful during general anaesthesia? Give examples of abnormal traces and their causes. How may it be calibrated?

List, with a brief statement on the effectiveness of each one, the methods described for detecting awareness during anaesthesia

Outline the methods of estimation of arterial pCO2 and their limitations

Describe the features of the anaesthetic machine which are intended to prevent the delivery of a hypoxic mixture to the patient.

Describe the circle system for anaesthesia.

Describe the principles involved in pulse oximetry. What are its limitations in clinical practice What are the sources of error in a pulse oximeter?

Define pressure. List the methods available for measuring systemic arterial blood pressure. Outline the principles involved in one of the methods listed.

What information can be obtained from measuring central venous pressure?

What arrangements are required for an adult head injured patient during transfer to a neurosurgical unit?


What immunological consequences may result from homologous blood transfusion?

Draw the following diagrams (with values): A spirometer trace showing normal lung volumes, FEV1/FVC graphs and flow-volume loops. How are these altered by the following diseases: asthma, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, chest wall restriction and respiratory muscle disease1

Draw clotting cascade.What is the role of the platelets? What is the importance of tissue factor?

Fibrinolytic system

Your patient in recovery has a high CO2. What are its implications? Will it cause hypoxia? How? Can you write and explain the alveolar gas equation. What happens according to the equation if the patient is hypercarbic? What is R? What is its value? Is it constant? What does it depend on? List the common causes of increased CO2 Draw a curve relating alveolar ventilation to PACO2 Can you equate alveolar CO2 to arterial CO2? What is the rationale? Can you equate alveolar O2 to arterial O2? What is the rationale? What is A-a difference? When does this gap widen? What is a shunt? Give me some examples.

What is pulmonary surfactant? Discuss its production in the lung, mechanism of action and function. What would be the effect of insufficient pulmonary surfactant?

Define contractility. Outline the methods available to the clinician to assess myocardial contractility in the perioperative period.

Write brief notes on the physiological responses that constitute the stress response to surgery.

What is meant by 'oxygen flux'? What factors affect it and what therapeutic measures increase it?

What are the adverse effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation? How would you minimise them?

Describe the endocrine and metabolic responses to major surgery. How does anaesthesia affect them?

What is physiological dead space? What factors affect it?

What mechanisms are involved in anaphylactic reactions? How would you manage a patient showing signs of such a reaction?

How does the physiology of children aged 1 year differ from that of adults?

What factors affect cerebral blood flow? Briefly state their importance in relation to anaesthesia within 12 hours of head injury.

Describe the physiological effects of hypercarbia.

Describe the conducting system of the heart. How may abnormalities of cardiac conduction be revealed by the electrocardiogram?

What are the causes and effects of hypothermia?


How would you manage a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopentone in the upper limb?

What are the disadvantages of nitrous oxide in clinical practice

Outline the clinical features and management of bupivacaine toxicity

You are asked to investigate the effectiveness of a new anti-emetic agent. Briefly outline the priniciples which should guide the design of such a study.

What are the main point that you would include in a patient information leaflet that you would submit to support an application to your local ethics committee to study a new non-depolarising muscle relaxant?

What are the therapeutic uses of magnesium and how does it work?

Draw a nephron with its blood supply. Where and how do the following exert their effects: loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics and aldosterone antagonists?

Write a guideline for reducing and treating postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Discuss the reasons for and against the use of nitrous oxide in anaesthetic practice.

What is the mode of action of epidural opioids? Discuss the relative merits of epidural fentanyl and morphine.

List the patterns of peripheral nerve stimulation that may be used to monitor non-depolarising neuromuscular blockade during anaesthesia. How is each used in clinical practice?

What are the functions of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes? How are the side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs related to inhibition of these enzymes?

Describe how and why a vaporiser delivering desflurane is different from one delivering isoflurane

Relate the clinical use of thiopentone and propofol to their pharmacological properties

Outline the pharmacology and clinical use of low molecular weight heparins for prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis

List the classes, with an example of each, of a) anticoagulants (20%) and b) antiplatelet drugs (20%) in current clinical practice.
How would you minimise the incidence of bleeding and haematoma formation associated with epidural anaesthesia in patients taking each of these drugs? (60%)

What are the endocrine causes of secondary hypertension? (25%)
What is the pharmacological management of each of these endocrine conditions? (35%)
State the mechanism of action of each drug. (40%)

Benzodiazepine action how do they act. GABA recetor. Midazolam: Effects/ Side effects/Uses

Continuous infusion

Context sensitive half life define

Describe the synthesis of 5 hydroxy tryptamine Where is it present? What are its functions? How is it metabolized? What is carcinoid? Where is it found? Small intestine. Which part of small intestine? How does a carcinoid present? Why don’t u get carcinoid syndrome when the tumor is localized to the gut? When do you get carcinoid syndrome and why? What is LSD? What is its relationship to serotonin? Do you know any 5 HT receptors? How many subtypes are there? Are there any drugs you know which act at these receptors? List them. What are their uses?

Compare the electrolyte content and osmolality of 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) and compound sodium lactate solution (Hartmann’s). (40%)
Why might compound sodium lactate solution be a better crystalloid replacement fluid than 0.9% sodium chloride? (40%)
Explain the effects of a large infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride on acid-base balance and electrolytes. (20%)

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Describe the desirable and undesirable effects of nitrous oxide.

What properties do you consider ideal for a neuromuscular blocking agent?

Compare the cardiovascular effects of desflurane, sevoflurane and isoflurane.

Discuss the mechanism of action and use of spinal opioids.

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Compare and contrast gelatin-based plasma substitutes and Hartmann's solution.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Hallo from Poole,
Am on Obs and pondering the final in April too! HAve the old bulletins but still have to draw up a multicoloured syllabus. Am very grateful for you sharing your organisational skills. Am inspired. Have a good NY